Incredible advances in hardware have not been matched by equivalent advances in software; we remain mired in the graphical user interface of the 1970s. I argue that we need a paradigm shift in how we design, implement and use interactive systems. Classical artificial intelligence treats the human user as a cog in the computer's process -- the so-called “human-in-the-loop”; Classical human-computer interaction focuses on creating and controlling the 'user experience'. We seek a third approach -- a true human-computer partnership, which takes advantage of machine learning, but leaves the user in control. I describe a series of projects that illustrate our approach to making interactive systems discoverable, appropriable and expressive, using the principles of instrumental interaction and reciprocal co-adaptation.
The goal is to create robust interactive systems that significantly augment human capabilities and are actually worth learning over time.